Review axial magnification in all its forms.
Discuss the stand magnifier's formation of an enlarged virtual image at a fixed distance with a fixed enlargement.
Understand the reason for a maximum usable add, and under what condition it occurs.
Understand patterns of axial magnification reduction when using a stand magnifier with reduced adds.
Understand the rate of reduction in fields and axial magnification as reading adds are reduced with the same focused stand magnifier.
Appreciate clarity with stand magnifier working distances as a range, and understand what happens to the calculated enlargement factor if magnification is determined subjectively at one end of that range.
Use stand magnifiers without referencing their labeled magnification.
Understand that there are multiple ways to provide multiple working distances with stand magnifiers, and that different optical strategies toward that goal provide different advantages and disadvantages to a patient.
Understand the strategies available with low maximum add stand magnifiers, and appreciate that these result from the stand magnifier's enlarged virtual image lying relatively far from the stand magnifier's lens.
Understand the strategies available with high maximum add stand magnifiers, and appreciate that these result from the stand magnifier's enlarged virtual image lying relatively close to the stand magnifier's lens.
Use clinically significant optical constants associated with
a list of common inexpensive lighted stand magnifiers.
Appreciate the varied effect of stand magnifier image location on lens aberrations.
Use a small stand magnifier diagnostic kit to provide an initial trial stand magnifier that is likely to maximize visual function with regard to a specific goal.